How to Harvest Avocado?- Avocado Harvesting - Avocado Agriculture Avocado Fruit Farming & Processing
- Published on: Monday, October 4, 2021
- How to Harvest Avocado?- Avocado Harvesting - Avocado Agriculture Avocado Fruit Farming & Avocado Processing Avocado Farming Guide: Avocado farming in Kenya and around the globe is gaining prominence partly because of the nutritious benefits of the avocado fruit. But where does one start in farming this delicious fruit? Here, we discuss more on the best practices on how to grow Avocados
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0:24 step by step Avocado Agriculture process
02:24 How to Harvest Avocado?
03:21 Avocado Cultivation
05:11 Avocado harvesting & Avocado picking process by hand
09:20 Avocado factory processing
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Avocado is a native of tropical America. It originated in Mexico and Central America, possibly from more than one wild species. The early Spanish explorers recorded its cultivation from Mexico to Peru but it was not in the West Indies at that time. It was introduced into Jamaica in 1650 and to Southern Spain in 1601. It was reported in Zanzibar in 1892. It was first recorded in Florida in 1833 and in California in 1856.
Avocado is the most nutritive among fruits and is regarded as the most important contribution of the New World to human diet. The fruit is relished by some people, but not by others. The pulp is rich in proteins (up to 4%) and fat (up to 30%), but low in carbohydrates. The fat is similar to olive oil in composition and is widely used in the preparation of cosmetics. Avocados have the highest energy value (245 cal/100 g) of any fruit besides being a reservoir of several vitamins and minerals (Table 1).
Avocado is mainly used fresh, in sandwich filling or in salads. It can also be used in ice creams and milk shakes and the pulp may be preserved by freezing. Three anti fungal compounds have been isolated from the peel extracts of immature fruits of the Green cultivar.
HARVESTING AND YIELDS
Avocado plants raised from seeds start bearing five to six years after planting. Mature fruits of purple varieties change their colour from purple to maroon, whereas fruits of green varieties become greenish-yellow. Fruits are ready for harvest when the colour of seed coat within the fruit changes from yellowish white to dark brown. Mature fruits ripen six to ten days after harvesting. The fruits remain hard as long as they stay on the trees, softening only after harvest.
The yield ranges from about 100 to 500 fruits per tree. In Sikkim, specifically, on average 300-400 fruits can be harvested from 10-15 years old trees.
In Sikkim, fruits of Purple variety are harvested during July, and for Green variety September-October is the usual harvesting time. In Tamil Nadu, July-August is the peak harvest time. The yield performance of avocado, both in tropical southern India and humid sub-tropical northeastern India is highly satisfactory.
7. POST-HARVEST HANDLING, STORAGE AND MARKETING
Avocados do not ripen on the tree, and fruits soften only after they are picked. Fruits need to be picked carefully. They should be harvested at the correct stage of maturity, when they are still hard and have a minimum oil content of 12 per cent.
In India, fruits of 250 to 300 grams in size are preferred. Most popular varieties are Hass, Fuerte and Green. Hard, mature fruits are harvested and allowed to ripen during transport and distribution. Up to 14 days transport time is considered satisfactory, though unripe avocados can be stored for up to four weeks if the temperature is kept between 5.5 and 8°C. Presently, there is no organized marketing system for avocado as the production is small and production areas are scattered.
8. POTENTIAL FOR AVOCADO PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT
The agro-climatic conditions prevailing in various parts of the country appear to be favourable for bringing more areas under avocado. Presently, plantations are not well organized and they are scattered. Also, quite a good number of improved varieties are now available with higher yield potential. Vegetative propagation techniques have harvested during May to August and December to January at different regions. Similar agro-climatic conditions to Sri Lanka are available in the Andamans and Nicobar Islands and in the tropical southern India. With proper varietal
9. CONSTRAINTS IN AVOCADO PRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT